One Score 2013

VERDI TIMELINE

By John Schauer

verdi

Guieseppe Verdi

1813

· The two giants of late-Romantic opera, Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner, are born.

· Gioachino Rossini wins his first international acclaim with Tancredi and L’italiana in Algeri.

· Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice is published.

· U.S. forces recapture Detroit from the British.

1814

· Beethoven completes the third and final version of Fidelio, his only opera; Schubert composes the song “Gretchen am Spinnrade,” his first masterpiece in the lied genre.

· Johann Nepomuk Maelzel invents the metronome.

· The Congress of Vienna convenes to redivide Europe.

· The British burn Washington, D.C.; the Treaty of Ghent officially ends the British-American war on December 24.

1815

· Schubert composes perhaps his most famous lied, “Erlkönig.”

· The U.S. defeats the British at Battle of New Orleans before news of the Treaty of Ghent arrives.

· The style of architecture and furniture design known as “Biedermeier” appears.

· Napoleon is decisively defeated at Waterloo by Wellington.

1816

· Verdi begins music studies at the age of 3.

· Rossini’s most enduringly popular opera, The Barber of Seville, premieres in Rome.

· Jane Austin’s Emma is published, and Charlotte Brontë is born.

· Indiana becomes a state.

· R.T. Laënnec invents the stethoscope.

1817

· Rossini premieres La Cenerentola in Rome and La gazza ladra in Milan.

· Mississippi becomes a state.

· Construction begins on the Erie Canal.

· Henry David Thoreau is born.

1818

· Charles Gounod, most famous for his operatic setting of the Faust story, is born.

· Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley publishes Frankenstein.

· Illinois becomes a state, and the border between the U.S. and Canada is established at the 49th Parallel.

· German social philosopher Karl Marx, theorist of socialism and communism, is born.

1819

· Jacques Offenbach, credited with creating the French operetta, is born.

· Alabama becomes a state; Florida is purchased from Spain.

· George Eliot (pen name of Mary Ann Evans) and poet Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass) are born.

· Simón Bolivar conquers the Spanish and becomes president of Greater Colombia (present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama).

1820

· As Maine enters the union as a free state, the “Missouri compromise” allows for Missouri to enter the union the following year as a slave state.

· Pushkin writes Ruslan and Lyudmila, the basis for Glinka’s famous opera.

· Florence Nightingale and Susan B. Anthony are born.

1821

· Egyptologist Auguste Mariette, who would write the scenario for Verdi’s Aida, is born.

· Weber’s Der Freischütz, regarded as the first masterpiece of German Romantic opera, premieres in Berlin.

· Jean François Champollion becomes the first man to decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing.

· French poet Charles Baudelaire, French novelist Gustave Flaubert (Madame Bovary) and Russian novelist Feodor Dostoyevsky (Crime and Punishment; The Brothers Karamazov) are born.

· Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, is born.

1822

· César Frank is born; Schubert composes his Symphony No. 8 (“Unfinished”).

· Ulysses S. Grant is born.

· Brazil wins its independence from Portugal.

· Gregor Mendel (founder of genetics), scientist Louis Pasteur and archeologist Heinrich Schliemann (who discovered the ruins of Troy) are born.

1823

· Beethoven finishes his Missa Solemnis, Schubert composes incidental music to Rosamunde and Weber premieres his opera Euryanthe.

· Mexico becomes a republic.

· The United States enunciates the Monroe Doctrine, prohibiting further European colonization in the Americas.

1824

· Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 (his last) and Mendelssohn’s Symphony No. 1 premiere.

· Austrian symphonist Anton Bruckner and Bedřich Smetana (The Bartered Bride opera, Má vlast cycle of tone poems) are born.

1825

· Mendelssohn composes his Octet; Vincenzo Bellini composes his first opera, Adelson e Salvini, as a conservatory project.

· Johann Strauss I establishes his own orchestra in Vienna; his son, Johann Strauss II (“the Waltz King”), is born.

· Pushkin writes Boris Godunov.

1826

· Mendelssohn composes his Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream; Weber’s Oberon premieres; composer Stephen Foster is born.

· The first performances of Italian opera are given in the United States.

· James Fenimore Cooper, the first great American novelist, writes Last of the Mohicans.

1827

· Schubert composes the song-cycle Der Winterreise.

· John James Audubon publishes the first installment in his landmark study Birds of North America.

· John Walker, an English apothecary, develops the first sulfur friction matches, revolutionizing the way fire is started.

1828

· The first public performance of a Verdi composition, an overture he composed for a production of Rossini’s Barber of Seville, is given in Busseto.

· Franz Schubert finishes his ninth symphony (“The Great”) before dying at age 31.

· Norwegian dramatist and poet Henrik Ibsen (Peer Gynt, Hedda Gabler, A Doll’s House), Russian novelist Leo Tolstoi (War and Peace, Anna Karenina) and French novelist Jules Verne (who originated modern science fiction) are born.

· Noah Webster publishes the first American dictionary.

1829

· An interest in music of the past is ignited when Felix Mendelssohn conducts a revival of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion in Berlin.

· Rossini’s final opera, Guillaume Tell, establishes the genre of French grand opéra, marked by enormous five-act length, lavish spectacle and dance.

· Louis Gottschalk, one of the first important American composers, is born.

· First U.S. patent is granted for a typewriter.

1830

· Berlioz revolutionizes the symphony with his Symphonie fantastique.

· Gaetano Donizetti scores his first major operatic success with Anna Bolena.

· American poet Emily Dickinson is born.

· Victor Hugo’s play Hernani, a landmark of Romantic drama, premieres.

· Joseph Smith founds the Mormon religion in Fayette, New York.

1831

· Vincenzo Bellini produces two of his most celebrated operas, La sonnambula and Norma.

· Giacomo Meyerbeer begins his reign as king of French grands opéras with Robert le Diable, whose scandalous dance divertissement marks the birth of Romantic ballet.

· Victor writes Notre Dame de Paris, best known to Americans as The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

· Chloroform, one of the first forms of surgical anesthesia, is invented.

1832

· Verdi’s application for admission to the Milan Conservatory is rejected.

· Mendelssohn’s Symphony No. 5 (actually the second one he composed), premieres in Berlin; Donizetti’s L’Elisir d’amore, his first great comic opera, premieres in Milan.

· American authors Louisa May Alcott and Horatio Alger are born, as is English writer Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, a.k.a. Lewis Carroll (Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland).

1833

· Mendelssohn’s “Italian” Symphony (numbered 4 but actually his third) receives its premiere.

· Johannes Brahms is born in Hamburg.

· Davy Crockett’s autobiography becomes a bestseller.

1834

· Berlioz premieres Harold in Italy; Franz Liszt premieres his first work for piano and orchestra, the Grand fantaisie symphonique.

· Wagner completes his first extant opera, Die Feen, which is not performed until 1888.

· Abraham Lincoln enters the Illinois legislature.

· French artist Edgar Dégas and American artist James Whistler (with the famous mother) are born.

1835

· French composer Camille Saint-Saëns and conductor Theodore Thomas (founder of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra) are born.

· Donizetti’s most enduring opera, Lucia di Lammermoor, premieres.

· American writer Samuel L. Clemens (a.k.a. Mark Twain) is born in Missouri.

· Two great American philanthropists, steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and merchant Marshall Field, are born in Scotland and Massachusetts, respectively.

1836

· Verdi marries Margherita Barezzi (1814 – 1840).

· Wagner conducts the first (and only) performance of his opera Das Liebesverbot in Magdeburg; Léo Delibes (French composer of the ballets Sylvia and Coppelia) is born.

· Davy Crockett is killed at the Alamo.

· Arkansas becomes a state

1837

· Belioz composes and premieres his Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem).

· Mily Balakirev, founder of the “Mighty Handful” of Russian composers, is born.

· Michigan becomes a state.

· Victoria is crowned queen of Great Britain.

· The electric telegraph is patented.

1838

· Verdi’s first songs are published in Milan.

· The premiere of Berlioz’s opera Benvenuto Cellini in Paris is a dismal failure, with only three performances.

· Composer Georges Bizet (Carmen) is born in Paris.

· Victoria is crowned Queen of Great Britain.

1839

· Verdi’s first opera, Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio is premiered in Milan’s Teatro alla Scala.

· Berlioz premieres his Roméo et Juliette symphony; Mendelssohn conducts the premiere of Schubert’s Symphony No. 9 (“The Great”) in Leipzig; Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky (Boris Godunov, Pictures at an Exhibition) is born.

· French artist Paul Cézanne is born.

· Charles Goodyear develops vulcanization of rubber, and the first bicycle is built in Scotland.

· American oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, founder of the University of Chicago, is born.

1840

· Verdi’s second opera, Un giorno di regno, has an unsuccessful premiere in Milan, being withdrawn after only a single performance; Mendelssohn’s Symphony No. 2 (his fourth) premieres in Leipzig; Franz Liszt gives the world’s first solo piano recitals in London.

· Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky is born in Votkinsk, Russia.

· Authors Thomas Hardy and Émile Zola are born.

· Impressionist painter Pierre Renoir and sculptor Auguste Rodin ( “The Thinker”) are born in France.

1841

· Composer Antonín Dvořák is born.

· Mendelssohn conducts the premiere of Schumann’s Symphony No. l (“Spring”) in Leipzig; Adolphe Adam’s ballet Giselle premieres at the Paris Opéra.

· Adolphe Sax invents the saxophone.

· Edgar Allen Poe publishes “Murders in the Rue Morgue.”

1842

· Verdi wins international acclaim with the triumphant Milan premiere of his third opera, Nabucco, at La Scala; Mendelssohn’s Symphony No. 3 (his last) premieres in Liepzig; Wagner enjoys his first major success with the premiere of Rienzi in Dresden.

· Italian opera composer Arrigo Boito, French opera composer Jules Massenet and English composer Arthur Sullivan (of “Gilbert &” operetta fame) are born.

· The New York Philharmonic Society is founded and gives its first concert.

1843

· Verdi enjoys another Milanese triumph with I lombardi alla prima crociata; Wagner has only a modest success with the Dresden premiere of Der fliegende Höllander (“The Flying Dutchman”); Donizetti scores a triumph with Don Pasquale at the Théâtre-italien in Paris.

· Composer Edvard Grieg is born in Bergen, Norway.

· Charles Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol.

· The world’s first night club opens in Paris.

1844

· Verdi’s opera Ernani, based upon Victor Hugo’s controversial play, enjoys a major success at its Venice premiere.

· French actress Sarah Bernhardt, French novelist Anatole France and German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche are born.

· Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon religion, is murdered by an angry mob in Carthage, Illinois.

1845

· Verdi’s Giovanna d’Arco premieres in Milan; his Alzira premieres in Venice; his I due Foscari premieres in Rome; Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto premieres at the Leipzig Gewandhaus; Wagner’s Tannhäuser is unenthusiastically received at its Dresden premiere; Gabriel Fauré is born in Pamiers, France.

· Texas and Florida become states.

· The U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis opens.

· The first game of modern baseball is played in Hoboken, New Jersey.

1846

· Verdi’s Attila premieres in Venice; Berlioz’s La damnation de Faust premieres in Paris.

· Edward Lear publishes The Book of Nonsense, a collection of illustrated limericks and humorous verse.

· Mexico’s war with Texas leads to all-out war with the U.S.

· The sewing machine is patented by Elias Howe; The Smithsonian Institution is founded in Washington; Iowa becomes a state.

1847

· Verdi’s Macbeth premieres in Florence; his Jérusalem (a reworking of I Lombardi) premieres in Paris; and his I masnadieri premieres in London.

· The Brontë sisters produce two classics, Charlotte’s Jane Eyre and Emily’s Wuthering Heights; Bram Stoker, the author of Dracula (1897), is born.

· American inventors Thomas Alva Edison and Alexander Graham Bell are born.

1848

· Verdi’s Il corsaro premieres in Trieste; Liszt composes the world’s first “symphonic poem,” a term he coined.

· Franz Josef becomes emperor of Austria; Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write their views of class struggle in the Communist Manifesto.

· Wisconsin becomes a state.

1849

· Verdi’s La battaglia di Legnano premieres in Rome, and his Luisa Miller premieres in Naples; soprano Giuseppina Strepponi moves into Verdi’s home.

· Paris audiences are astonished at the “ice skating” ballet in Meyerbeer’s Le Prophète, in which dancers performed in recently invented roller skates.

· Charles Dickens publishes David Copperfield.

1850

· Verdi’s Stiffelio premieres in Trieste; Franz Liszt conducts the premiere of Wagner’s Lohengrin in Weimar; Robert Schumann’s only opera, Genoveva, premieres in Leipzig.

· Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter appears; Scottish writer Robert Lewis Stevenson is born.

1851

· Rigoletto, the first of Verdi’s three “middle period” masterworks, premieres in Venice; Liszt finishes his final version of the “Transcendental Etudes.”

· Cuba declares independence.

· Two great American classics—Hawthorne’s House of the Seven Gables and Melville’s Moby Dick—appear; Harriet Beecher Stowe begins the serialized publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which would sway national opinion and change the course of American history.

· The New York Times begins publication.

1852

· Alexandre Duas fils transforms his 1848 novel La Dame aux Camélias (“Lady of the Camelias”) into a play that would become the basis for Verd’s La traviata.

· Henry Wells and William Fargo establish Wells, Fargo & Co., offering express mail delivery to California.

1853

· The premieres of Il trovatore in Rome and La traviata in Venice cement Verdi’s reputation as the most celebrated Italian opera composer in the world.

· German immigrant Henry Engelhard Steinway opens the Steinway piano factory in New York.

· Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh is born.

1854

· Liszt’s Les Préludes, his most popular orchestral work, premieres in Weimar.

· Engelbert Humperdinck (Hänsel und Gretel) is born near Bonn.

· Henry David Thoreau publishes his most famous book, Walden, an expression of American transcendentalism, a literary and philosophical movement celebrating the divinity of man and nature.

1855

· Verdi’s Les vêpres Siciliennes premieres in Paris.

· Longfellow publishes his most famous work, The Song of Hiawatha, as does Walt Whitman with his Leaves of Grass, which has been called the most influential volume of poems in the history of American literature.

1856

· British writers George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde are born.

· Gustave Flaubert publishes his most famous novel, Madame Bovary, in a Parisian journal.

· Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, is born in Moravia.

1857

· Verdi’s Simon Boccanegra premieres in Venice and his Aroldo premieres in Rimini; Liszt premieres his “Faust” Symphony in Weimar.

· Liszt’s daughter Cosima marries conductor Hans von Bülow.

· English composer Edward Elgar is born.

1858

· Italian verismo opera composers Ruggiero Leoncavallo and Giacomo Puccini are born.

· Minnesota becomes a state.

· Bernadette Soubirous claims to have a miraculous vision of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes.

1859

· Verdi marries Giouseppina Strepponi; his Un ballo in maschera premieres in Rome. Because of censorship problems, Verdi never accepts another commission from an Italian opera company.

· Charles Gounod’s Faust premieres at the Théâtre Lyrique in Paris.

· Dickens publishes A Tale of Two Cities; English mystery writer Arthur Conan Doyle (Sherlock Holmes stories) and English poet A.E. Houseman are born.

· Darwin publishes On the Origin of the Species.

· Construction begins on the Suez Canal.

1860

· Austrian symphonist Gustav Mahler, Polish piano virtuoso Ignace Paderewski, Austrian lieder composer Hugo Wolf and French opera composer Gustave Charpentier are born.

· English playwright and novelist James M. Barrie (Peter Pan) and Russian dramatist Anton Chekhov (The Seagull, The Cherry Orchard) are born.

· The first practical internal-combustion engine is built.

1861

· Verdi becomes a member of the newly formed Italian parliament.

· George Eliot publishes Silas Marner; Dickens publishes Great Expectations.

· Abraham Lincoln becomes the 16th U.S. president.

· Kansas becomes a state; the American Civil War begins.

1862

· Verdi’s La forza del destino premieres in St. Petersburg; Berlioz’s final opera, Béatrice et Bénédict, premieres in Baden-Baden; French impressionist composer Claude Debussy and English composer Frederick Delius are born; Ludwig Köchel publishes his landmark catalogue of Mozart’s works.

· Victor Hugo publishes Les Misérables.

· Léon Foucault measures the speed of light.

1863

· Italian verismo opera composer Pietro Mascagni (Cavalleria rusticana) is born.

· On January 1 Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves to be free. In November he delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of a national cemetery on a Civil War battlefield in Pennsylvania.

· American industrialist Henry Ford and newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst are born.

· West Virginia becomes a state.

1864

· German opera composer Richard Strauss (Salome, Elektra, Der Rosenkavalier) is born.

· Maximilian, brother of Austrian Emperor Franz Josef, becomes emperor of Mexico.

· French painter and lithographer Henri Toulouse-Lautrec is born.

· French chemist Louis Pasteur invents pasteurization.

· The Geneva Convention establishes rules for the treatment of prisoners of war, the sick and the wounded.

· Nevada becomes a state.

1865

· Verdi resigns from the Italian parliament; Hans von Bülow conducts the world premiere in Munich of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde.

· French composer Paul Dukas (The Sorcerer’s Apprentice) and Finnish symphonist Jean Sibelius (The Swan of Tuonela, Finlandia) are born.

· The Civil War ends after Lee surrenders to Grant on April 9; on April 14 Abraham Lincoln is assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington; Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery in America.

· English author Rudyard Kipling (Gunga Din, The Jungle Book, Just So Stories) and Irish poet William Butler Yeats are born; Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) publishes Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.

· The first Pullman sleeping cars appear in U.S.; Chicago’s Union Stockyards open.

1866

· The first version of Smetana’s The Bartered Bride premieres in Prague.

· Eccentric French composer Eric Satie, whose works would be seen as a reaction against Romanticism, is born.

· British science-fiction author Herbert George (“H.G.”) Wells (The War of the Worlds; The Invisible Man) is born; Dostoyevsky publishes Crime and Punishment.

· Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, credited as the originator of abstract art, is born.

· Alfred Nobel invents dynamite; the first permanently successful transatlantic telegraphic cable is laid.

1867

· Verdi premieres the original five-act version of Don Carlos at the Paris Opéra; Johann Strauss II composes his waltz masterpiece, “On the Beautiful Blue Danube.”

· Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini and chemist and physicist Marie Curie, discoverer of radium, are born.

· The Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy is established.

· Emperor Maximilian of Mexico is assassinated; Benito Juárez is elected president.

· Nebraska becomes a state; U.S. purchases Alaska from Russia; the Dominion of Canada is established.

· Marx publishes the first volume of his magnum opus, Das Capital, laying the foundation of international socialism.

1868

· Brahms’s Ein Deutsches requiem, Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 1 and Wagner’s Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg have their premieres; Cosima Liszt leaves her first husband, Hans von Bülow, for Richard Wagner.

· Louisa May Alcott achieves fame and wealth with the publication of Little Women.

· The Armour meat-packing factory opens in Chicago.

· The game of badminton is invented; the first professional American baseball club is formed.

1869

· Wagner’s Das Rheingold (the first opera of his four-opera Ring cycle), has its premiere in Munich that same year.

· Leo Tolstoy finishes writing War and Peace.

· French painter, sculptor and lithographer Henri Matisse and American architect Frank Lloyd Wright are born.

· The first intercollegiate football game (Princeton-Rutgers) is played, in New Jersey.

1870

· Delibes’s Coppélia, Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet Overture and Wagner’s Die Walküre have their premieres.

· Cosima Liszt-von Bülow marries Richard Wagner.

· Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the Russian Revolution, is born.

· Jules Verne writes Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.

· John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil.

1871

· Verdi’s Aida has its premiere in Cairo.

· French novelist Marcel Proust (Remembrance of Things Past) and American authors Stephen Crane (The Red Badge of Courage) and Theodore Dreiser (An American Tragedy) are born.

· Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man.

· The Royal Albert Hall is opened in London; P.T. Barnum’s circus, “The Greatest Show on Earth,” opens in Brooklyn.

· Much of Chicago is destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire.

1872

· Russian composer Alexander Scriabin is born.

· Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev (The Ballets Russes) and Rasputin, the “Mad Monk” of Russia, are born.

· Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking Glass, the sequel to Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland; Jules Verne publishes Around the World in 80 Days.

· English philosopher Bertrand Russell is born.

· James Abbott McNeill Whistler paints the famous portrait of his mother, “Arrangement in Gray and Black.”

1873

· The second symphonies of Tchaikovsky and Bruckner have their premieres.

· Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninoff is born, as are Enrico Caruso, arguably the most famous opera singer of all time, and legendary Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin.

· The gunsmith firm of E. Remington and Sons begins to produce typewriters.

· The cities of Buda and Pest are united to form the capital of Hungary.

1874

· The premiere of Verdi’s Requiem marks the beginning of his “retirement” from composing.

· Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov, J. Strauss’s Die Fledermaus and Smetana’s Má Vlast have their premieres.

· Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Britain; Winston Churchill is born.

· Writers W. Somerset Maugham (Of Human Bondage) and Gertrude Stein are born.

· The first impressionist exhibition, featuring works by Claude Monet, opens in Paris.

1875

· Georges Bizet dies only months after the premiere of his masterwork, Carmen; impressionist composer Maurice Ravel is born; Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No. 1 receives its world premiere in Boston.

· Hans Christian Andersen dies; German novelist Thomas Mann is born.

· C.G. Jung, the founder of analytical psychology, is born .

1876

· Colorado becomes a state of the U.S.

· Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

· Jack London (The Call of the Wild) is born; Tolstoy finishes writing Anna Karnenina.

· Alexander Graham Bell receives his first patent for the telephone.

· The U.S. National Baseball League is founded.

1877

· Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake premieres to a lukewarm reception.

· German novelist Hermann Hesse (Siddhartha, Steppenwolf) is born .

· Thomas Edison produces his first phonograph; the first public telephones appear in the U.S.

· All-England Croquet Club holds the first world tennis championship at Wimbledon.

1878

· American poet Carl Sandburg and muckraking novelist Upton Sinclair are born.

· Charles Taze Russell organizes his followers into the church now known as Jehovah’s Witnesses.

· The first microphone is invented as a telephone transmitter.

1879

· George Grove begins publishing his first Dictionary of Music and Musicians.

· Leon Trotsky, architect of the Russian Revolution, and future Russian dictator Joseph Stalin are born.

· Artist Paul Klee is born

1880

· British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli resigns.

· Dostoevsky writes The Brothers Karamazov; Gustave Flaubert dies.

· Rodin completes “The Thinker.”

· The game of Bingo is invented.

· New York streets are lit by electricity for the first time.

1881

· Composer Béla Bartók is born; Offenbach’s Les contes d’Hoffmann (“The Tales of Hoffmann”) receives its posthumous premiere.

· Pablo Picasso is born.

1882

· Tchaikovsky’s “1812” Overture and Wagner’s final opera, Parsifal, premiere.

· Composer Igor Stravinsky (The Rite of Spring, Petrushka, The Firebird) is born.

· Franklin D. Roosevelt is born.

· Writers Virginia Woolf and James Joyce are born.

· Robert Louis Stevenson writes Treasure Island.

1883

· Serialist composer Anton Webern is born; Delibes’s opera Lakmé premieres.

· New York’s Metropolitan Opera House and London’s Royal College of Music open.

· Benito Mussolini and Franz Kafka are born.

· Nietzsche writes Thus Spoke Zarathrustra.

· The first “skyscraper” (10 stories) is built in Chicago; the Brooklyn Bridge is opened to traffic.

1884

· Verdi begins composing Otello, his first new opera since Aida in 1871.

· Music premieres: Brahms’s Symphony No. 3, Bruckner’s Symphony No. 7, Massenet’s opera Manon and Puccini’s first opera, Le villi.

· Harry S. Truman is born.

· Italian painter and sculptor Amedeo Modigliani is born

· Mark Twain publishes Huckleberry Finn.

· The Oxford English Dictionary begins publication.

1885

· Music premieres: Brahms’s Symphony No. 4, Franck’s Symphonic Variations, J. Strauss’s The Gypsy Baron and Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado.

· Serialist composer Alban Berg and authors D.H. Lawrence and Ezra Pound are born.

· Louis Pasteur develops a rabies vaccine.

· Karl Benz builds the first internal-combustion automobile.

· The game of golf is introduced to the U.S.

1886

· Robert Louis Stevenson writes Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

· Painter Georges Seurat first exhibits “Sunday Afternoon on the Grande Jatte.”

· Hydroelectric installations are begun at Niagara Falls.

· The Statue of Liberty is dedicated.

1887

· Verdi’s Otello premieres in Milan.

· Chiang Kai-shek, Marc Chagall and Le Corbusier are born.

· Sir Arthur Conan Doyle writes “A Study in Scarlet,” the first Sherlock Holmes story.

1888

· Tchaikovsk’s Symphony No. 5 and Rimsky-Korsakov’s Sheherazade receive their premieres.

· Composer Irving Berlin and conductor Fritz Reiner are born.

· T.S. Eliot, Eugene O’Neill, T. E. Lawrence and Jim Thorpe are born.

· George Eastman perfects the “Kodak” box camera.

· “Jack the Ripper” murders six women in London.

1889

· Music premieres: Franck’s Symphony in D Major and R. Strauss’s Don Juan.

· North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington all become states of the U.S.

· Adolf Hitler is born.

· Mark Twain writes A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court.

· Alexander Gustave Eiffel designs the Eiffel Tower.

1890

· Opera premieres: Tchaikovsky’s Pikovaya Dama, Mascagni’s Cavalleria Ruisticana and Borodin’s Prince Igor (posth.)

· Idaho and Wyoming become states.

· Dwight D. Eisenhower and Charles de Gaulle are born.

· The first moving-picture shows appear in New York.

· Oscar Wilde writes The Picture of Dorian Gray.

· George A. Bayle, Jr., invents peanut butter.

1891

· Composer Sergei Prokofiev is born.

· Mahler’s First Symphony premieres.

· The zipper is invented.

1892

· Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker premieres in St. Petersburg on a double bill with his opera Iolanta; Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci premieres in Milan.

· Dvořák becomes the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York.

· RudolfDiesel patents the internal combustion engine.

1893

· Music premieres: Verdi’s Falstaff (his final opera), Dvořák’s “New World” Symphony, Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel, Puccini’s Manon Lescaut.

· Composer Cole Porter is born.

· Henry Ford builds his first horseless carriage, the Ford Quadricycle.

· The Columbian World Exhibition opens in Chicago.

1894

· Music premieres: Sibelius’s Finlandia, Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and Massenet’s Thais.

· Aldous Huxley is born.

· Rudyard Kipling writes The Jungle Book

· A committee is founded to organize the modern Olympic Games

1895

· Mahler’s Symphony No. 2 (“Resurrection”) premieres.

· Paul Hindemith, Oscar Hammerstein, Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey are born.

· H.G. Wells writes The Time Machine.

· The first professional football game is played in the U.S.

1896

· Music premieres: Puccini’s La bohème, Giordano’s Andrea Chenier and R. Strauss’s Also sprach Zarathustra.

· Utah becomes a state.

· The first modern Olympics are held in Athens, Greece

· Beginning of the Klondike Gold Rush

1897

· Composer Erich Wolfgang Korngold is born.

· H.G. Wells writes The Invisible Man; Kipling writes Captains Courageous

· The “Katzenjammer Kids,” the first American comic strip, begins.

· British physicist J.J. Thomson discovers the electron.

· Queen Victoria celebrates her Diamond Jubilee.

1898

· African American bass singer Paul Robeson is born.

· Bertolt Brecht and Ernest Hemingway are born.

· H.G. Wells writes The War of the Worlds

· The Paris Métro opens.

1899

· Music premieres: Sibelius’s Symphony No. 1, Bruckner’s Symphony No. 6 (posth.)

· Composer Francis Poulenc, actor Charles Laughton, author Federico García Lorca and Noel Coward are born.

· The first international Peace Conference is held at The Hague

· Oscar Wilde writes The Importance of Being Earnest.

1900

· Puccini’s Tosca premieres; composer Aaron Copland is born.

· The Paris World’s Fair introduces Art Nouveau.

· The Boxer Rebellion wreaks havoc in Beijing.

· Human speech is transmitted via radio waves for the first time.

· Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams.

1901

· Verdi dies.

· Dvořák’s opera Rusalka and Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto No. 2 premiere.

· Queen Victoria dies and is succeeded by Edward VII.

· The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.

· Walt Disney is born.

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